The main objective of the course is to provide the tools for conducting scientific research in cutting-edge physics and related disciplines, and to complete training at the graduate level. Interdisciplinary activities and those relating to the development of innovative technologies (electronic, IT, computing, materials, nano-technologies) of interest to industry and society are considered qualifying. PhD students are encouraged to participate in schools, conferences and workshops. Doctoral students carry out their research in an international context, making visits to foreign universities and laboratories. PhD students are also encouraged to collaborate to the drafting of research projects, learning this type of activity on the ground.